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This, in turn, means that every digit of a multi-digit number has 10 possibilities, zero through nine. In a hexadecimal system, each digit has 16 possibilities. But our numeric system only offers 10 ways of representing numbers zero through nine. That's why you have to stick letters in, specifically letters a, b, c, d, e, and f. If you are mining bitcoin, you do not need to calculate the total value of that digit number the hash. I repeat: You do not need to calculate the total value of a hash.

Remember that ELI5 analogy, where I wrote the number 19 on a piece of paper and put it in a sealed envelope? In bitcoin mining terms, that metaphorical undisclosed number in the envelope is called the target hash.

What miners are doing with those huge computers and dozens of cooling fans is guessing at the target hash. A nonce is short for "number only used once," and the nonce is the key to generating these bit hexadecimal numbers I keep talking about. In Bitcoin mining, a nonce is 32 bits in size—much smaller than the hash, which is bits. In theory, you could achieve the same goal by rolling a sided die 64 times to arrive at random numbers, but why on earth would you want to do that?

The screenshot below, taken from the site Blockchain. You are looking at a summary of everything that happened when block was mined. The nonce that generated the "winning" hash was The target hash is shown on top. The term "Relayed by Antpool" refers to the fact that this particular block was completed by AntPool, one of the more successful mining pools more about mining pools below.

As you see here, their contribution to the Bitcoin community is that they confirmed transactions for this block. If you really want to see all of those transactions for this block, go to this page and scroll down to the heading "Transactions. All target hashes begin with zeros—at least eight zeros and up to 63 zeros. There is no minimum target, but there is a maximum target set by the Bitcoin Protocol.

No target can be greater than this number:. Here are some examples of randomized hashes and the criteria for whether they will lead to success for the miner:. You'd have to get a fast mining rig, or, more realistically, join a mining pool—a group of coin miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin. Mining pools are comparable to those Powerball clubs whose members buy lottery tickets en masse and agree to share any winnings.

A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. In other words, it's literally just a numbers game. You cannot guess the pattern or make a prediction based on previous target hashes. Not great odds if you're working on your own, even with a tremendously powerful mining rig.

Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem. They must also consider the significant amount of electrical power mining rigs utilize in generating vast quantities of nonces in search of the solution.

All told, bitcoin mining is largely unprofitable for most individual miners as of this writing. Source: Cryptocompare. Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to the puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is equal to the portion of the total mining power on the network.

Participants with a small percentage of the mining power stand a very small chance of discovering the next block on their own. For instance, a mining card that one could purchase for a couple of thousand dollars would represent less than 0. With such a small chance at finding the next block, it could be a long time before that miner finds a block, and the difficulty going up makes things even worse.

The miner may never recoup their investment. The answer to this problem is mining pools. By working together in a pool and sharing the payouts among all participants, miners can get a steady flow of bitcoin starting the day they activate their miner. As mentioned above, the easiest way to acquire bitcoin is to simply buy it on one of the many exchanges. Alternately, you can always leverage the "pickaxe strategy.

Or, to put it in modern terms, invest in the companies that manufacture those pickaxes. In a cryptocurrency context, the pickaxe equivalent would be a company that manufactures equipment used for Bitcoin mining. The legality of Bitcoin mining depends entirely on your geographic location. The concept of Bitcoin can threaten the dominance of fiat currencies and government control over the financial markets. For this reason, Bitcoin is completely illegal in certain places.

Bitcoin ownership and mining are legal in more countries than not. The risks of mining are that of financial risk and a regulatory one. As mentioned, Bitcoin mining, and mining in general, is a financial risk. One could go through all the effort of purchasing hundreds or thousands of dollars worth of mining equipment only to have no return on their investment.

That said, this risk can be mitigated by joining mining pools. If you are considering mining and live in an area that it is prohibited you should reconsider. It may also be a good idea to research your countries regulation and overall sentiment towards cryptocurrency before investing in mining equipment. Your Money. Personal Finance.

Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Bitcoin Basics. Bitcoin Mining. How to Store Bitcoin. Bitcoin Exchanges. Bitcoin Advantages and Disadvantages. Bitcoin vs. Other Cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin Value and Price. Cryptocurrency Bitcoin.

Table of Contents Expand. What is Bitcoin Mining? How To Mine Bitcoins. Mining and Bitcoin Circulation. How Much a Miner Earns. The Simple Explanation. The Digit Hexadecimal Number. Is Bitcoin Mining Legal? Risks of Mining. Key Takeaways By mining, you can earn cryptocurrency without having to put down money for it. Bitcoin miners receive Bitcoin as a reward for completing "blocks" of verified transactions which are added to the blockchain.

Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to a complex hashing puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is related to the portion of the total mining power on the network. Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.

Related Articles. Partner Links. This is why buying bitcoin on an exchange can be a simpler way to make a profit. However, when done efficiently it is possible to end up with more bitcoin from mining than from simply hodling. One of the most important variables for miners is the price of Bitcoin itself.

If, like most people, you are paying for your mining hardware, and your electricity,- in dollars, then you will need to earn enough bitcoin from mining to cover your ongoing costs; and make back your original investment into the machine itself. Bitcoin price, naturally, impacts all miners. However, there are three factors that separate profitable miners from the rest: cheap electricity, low cost and efficient hardware and a good mining pool.

Electricity prices vary from country to country. Many countries also charge a lower price for industrial electricity in order to encourage economic growth. This means that a mining farm in Russia will pay half as much for the electricity you would mining at home in the USA. In practical terms. These days there are several hardware manufacturers to choose from.

The price of hardware varies from manufacturer to manufacturer and depends largely on how low the energy use is for the machine vs the amount of computing power it produces. The more computing power, the more bitcoin you will mine. The lower the energy consumption the lower your monthly costs. Longevity is determined by the production quality of the machine. It makes no sense to buy cheaper or seemingly more efficient machines if they break down after a few months of running.

One useful way to think about hardware is to consider what price BTC would have to fall to in order for the machines to stop being profitable. You want your machine to stay profitable for several years in order for you to earn more bitcoin from mining than you could have got by simply buying the cryptocurrency itself. Unfortunately most older machines are now no longer profitable even in China.

The Bitmain S9 has been operational since and interestingly enough they are still being used in Venezuela and Iran where electricity is so cheap that it outweighs the risk of confiscation. There may, eventually, be more reputable sources of sub 2 cents electricity as the access to solar and wind improves in North America. For the individual miner, the only hope of competing with operations that have access to such cheap electricity is to send your machines to those farms themselves.

Not many farms offer this as a service though. These days, every miner needs to mine through a mining pool. Whether you are mining with one machine, or several thousand, the network of Bitcoin mining machines is so large that your chances of regularly finding a block and therefore earning the block reward and transaction fees is very low.

With one block per 10 mins they may have to wait 16 years to mine that one block. The oldest two pools are Slush Pool and F2Pool. Here comes the science part…. Pool fees are normally 2. Choosing the right mining pool is very important, as you will receive your mined bitcoin sent from the pool payouts every day. An often overlooked facet of mining profitability is the fees one pays to sell the Bitcoin one mines. If you are a small time miner, you may have to sell your coins on a retail exchange like kraken or Binance.

Sometimes your fees are low but sometimes your fees are high - it really just depends on the fee structure of the exchange and the state of the orderbook at the moment. However, if you are a professional miner like F2 or Bitmain, you likely have really advantageous deals with OTC desks to sell your coins at little to no fees - depending on the state of the market. Some miners are even paid above spot price for their coins.

If you think you have what it takes be mine profitably, we suggest you make sure first by using our mining profitability calculator. Bitcoin farms that operate at scale use these advantages to maximize their returns. As the difficulty of mining bitcoin increases, and the price lags behind, it is becoming harder and harder for small miners to make a profit.

It all comes down to scale and access to cheaper prices. When people enter the space, without prior relationships, they struggle to compete with established mining operations. Bitcoin mining is starting to resemble similar industries as more money flows in and people start to suit up. With increased leverage, margins are lower across the whole sector. Soon, large scale miners will be able to hedge their operations with financial tooling to lock in profits, whilst bringing in USD denominated investments like loans or for equity.

As mining becomes more professional , it will make things even harder for DIY miners. If you have put in the effort to learn about mining, and you have found a location with low cost electricity for your machines, then you still need to consider where to store the bitcoin that you mine. It is possible to mine direct from the pool to an exchange , but we recommend you keep your bitcoin in a wallet where you have access to the private keys.

No, and in the case of Bitcoin, it almost never was. There was a time where one could profitably mine Bitcoin with GPUs, but again…today, you really must have an ASIC and a deal witha power company to make any money mining Bitcoin in The average home miner is unlikely to recoup the cost of mining hardware and electricity. Profiting on your own is highly unlikely.

The situation may improve in the future once ASIC mining hardware innovation reaches the point of diminishing returns. That, coupled with cheap, hopefully sustainable power solutions that retail customers can access in some shape or form, may once again make Bitcoin mining profitable to small individual miners around the world.

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The result of bitcoin mining is twofold. First, when computers solve these complex math problems on the bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin not unlike when a mining operation extracts gold from the ground. And second, by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure by verifying its transaction information.

When someone sends bitcoin anywhere, it's called a transaction. Transactions made in-store or online are documented by banks, point-of-sale systems, and physical receipts. When bitcoin miners add a new block of transactions to the blockchain, part of their job is to make sure that those transactions are accurate.

With digital currency, however, it's a different story. Digital information can be reproduced relatively easily, so with Bitcoin and other digital currencies, there is a risk that a spender can make a copy of their bitcoin and send it to another party while still holding onto the original.

With as many as , purchases and sales occurring in a single day, verifying each of those transactions can be a lot of work for miners. The amount of new bitcoin released with each mined block is called the "block reward. In , it was In , it was 25, in it was Bitcoin successfully halved its mining reward—from This system will continue until around These fees ensure that miners still have the incentive to mine and keep the network going.

The idea is that competition for these fees will cause them to remain low after halvings are finished. These halvings reduce the rate at which new coins are created and, thus, lower the available supply. This can cause some implications for investors, as other assets with low supply—like gold—can have high demand and push prices higher.

At this rate of halving, the total number of bitcoin in circulation will reach a limit of 21 million, making the currency entirely finite and potentially more valuable over time. In order for bitcoin miners to actually earn bitcoin from verifying transactions, two things have to occur. First, they must verify one megabyte MB worth of transactions, which can theoretically be as small as one transaction but are more often several thousand, depending on how much data each transaction stores.

Second, in order to add a block of transactions to the blockchain, miners must solve a complex computational math problem, also called a "proof of work. In other words, it's a gamble. The difficulty level of the most recent block as of August is more than 16 trillion. That is, the chance of a computer producing a hash below the target is 1 in 16 trillion.

To put that in perspective, you are about 44, times more likely to win the Powerball jackpot with a single lottery ticket than you are to pick the correct hash on a single try. Fortunately, mining computer systems spit out many hash possibilities. Nonetheless, mining for bitcoin requires massive amounts of energy and sophisticated computing operations. The difficulty level is adjusted every blocks, or roughly every 2 weeks, with the goal of keeping rates of mining constant. The opposite is also true.

If computational power is taken off of the network, the difficulty adjusts downward to make mining easier. Say I tell three friends that I'm thinking of a number between 1 and , and I write that number on a piece of paper and seal it in an envelope.

My friends don't have to guess the exact number, they just have to be the first person to guess any number that is less than or equal to the number I am thinking of. And there is no limit to how many guesses they get. Let's say I'm thinking of the number There is no 'extra credit' for Friend B, even though B's answer was closer to the target answer of Now imagine that I pose the 'guess what number I'm thinking of' question, but I'm not asking just three friends, and I'm not thinking of a number between 1 and Rather, I'm asking millions of would-be miners and I'm thinking of a digit hexadecimal number.

Now you see that it's going to be extremely hard to guess the right answer. Not only do bitcoin miners have to come up with the right hash, but they also have to be the first to do it. Because bitcoin mining is essentially guesswork, arriving at the right answer before another miner has almost everything to do with how fast your computer can produce hashes.

Just a decade ago, bitcoin mining could be performed competitively on normal desktop computers. Over time, however, miners realized that graphics cards commonly used for video games were more effective and they began to dominate the game. In , bitcoin miners started to use computers designed specifically for mining cryptocurrency as efficiently as possible, called Application-Specific Integrated Circuits ASIC. These can run from several hundred dollars to tens of thousands but their efficiency in mining Bitcoin is superior.

Today, bitcoin mining is so competitive that it can only be done profitably with the most up-to-date ASICs. Even with the newest unit at your disposal, one computer is rarely enough to compete with what miners call "mining pools. A mining pool is a group of miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin between participants. A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. Mining pools and companies have represented large percentages of bitcoin's computing power.

Consumers tend to trust printed currencies. In addition to a host of other responsibilities, the Federal Reserve regulates the production of new money, and the federal government prosecutes the use of counterfeit currency.

Even digital payments using the U. When you make an online purchase using your debit or credit card, for example, that transaction is processed by a payment processing company such as Mastercard or Visa. In addition to recording your transaction history, those companies verify that transactions are not fraudulent, which is one reason your debit or credit card may be suspended while traveling.

You need to also check the other temps in your case. While you aren't stressing the CPU and motherboard if the case design isn't properly exuasting the hot air outside the case the ambient temp around CPU and motherboard will rise making cooling less efficient and could lead to damage to those components. Mining can be brutal on a powersupply. Cheaper built powersupplies just can't handle that abuse. Stick to major brands with good reviews and solid warranties.

About AMD "reference designs": These cards are usually the first design released by AMD and are designed to handle high load with multiple cards in a single case. They tend to be more expensive to build so card companies are always look for ways to cut cost as more users with single card don't need that level of overengineering.

The reference design is visually very easy to identify as it will have a single squirrel cage fan near the interior end of the card, a closed heat shroud, and a vent which exhausts hot air outside the case. Controlling the computer's temperature is really important. Excessive heat may cause hardware damage and constant crashes.

High end cards tend to consume more power and produce more heat, but any system can overheat if not properly ventilated. You should install a program to control your fan's speed and monitor your GPU temperature. The miner software also has configurable parameters to reduce the GPU load. Times have changed and a lot of higher end cards are now far more power efficient. The most accurate thing in this thread is that it's true: heat is what kills hardware.

If you treat your hardware well, it's going to last a while. This is why people's laptops generally die out from a variety of costs in a few years - they're made poorly: the airflow is generally bad, the hardware is pushed to its limits in simple repetitive tasks I'm looking at you, Netflix! I've left my computer on for days on end and have not experienced any problems. If you can reduce stress on the systems that are working the hardest, you can increase your runway.

Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Can I damage my computer by mining bitcoin? Ask Question. Asked 9 years, 3 months ago. Active 1 year, 11 months ago. Viewed k times. Improve this question. Josh Josh 1 1 gold badge 4 4 silver badges 14 14 bronze badges. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. It is possible to damage your computer by mining in the following ways: the computer will degrade more, as it is used more you will have to replace it sooner than normally the computer will overheat and some components will fail because of that if for example, the computer is dusty.

If the parts are well-maintained and the computer is not boxed in, this shouldn't be the issue you will overload some part of your computer with the mining and it will short circuit or blow a fuse mostly relevant if your power supply is weak, this happened to me once Number 3 you should notice quite fast if you run your miner at top speed, full load.

Number 1 you won't notice for months or years. Improve this answer. ThePiachu ThePiachu It is heat that kills. Yeah but does he have a flying toaster?