In its implementation, the current and voltage sensors acquire the desired data from the process plant, the ESP32 micro-controller receives, processes and sends the acquired sensor data via a Wi-Fi network to the Thinger. IO local server IoT platform for data storage, real-time monitoring and remote control. The Thinger. IO Server where an operator can remotely monitor the data in the cloud, as well as initiate supervisory control activities if the acquired data are not in the expected range, using both a computer connected to the network, and Thinger.
IO Mobile Apps are presented in the paper. A SCADA system is a collection of both software and hardware components that allows for the supervision and control of. Electronics , 8, ; doi The system involves the examination, collection, and processing of data in real time, as well as data logging for historical purposes. SCADA technology has evolved over the past 30 years as a method of monitoring and controlling distributed processes .
Before the emergence of SCADA, plant personnel had to monitor and control industrial processes via selector switches, push buttons, and dials for analog signals , which meant that plants needed to maintain a good number of personnel on site during production to be able to carry out these manual monitoring and control tasks.
As industrial processes grew and sites became more remote in nature, relays and timers were used to assist in the supervision and control of processes, which meant that fewer number of personnel were required on site to oversee their operations. While relays and timers provided a decent level of automation, they required more resources to manage their operations. The need to automate more processes, which coupled with the difficulties associated with the previous monitoring and control solutions gave birth to the first generation SCADA systems in the s called Monolithic SCADA, and they were stand-alone units.
Unfortunately then, the communications were typically proprietary which meant that the connections outside of the vendors of a particular SCADA system were not possible [2—4]. Later in the s and s, SCADA began to implement open system architectures with communication protocols that were no longer vendor specific, leading to more connection capabilities in the form of a wide area network.
With computer technologies growing rapidly, this SCADA was quickly out of date as other technologies were becoming more efficient and more in tune with the latest Information Technology IT developments. This SCADA allows for real-time plant information to be accessed from anywhere around the world using various operating systems and platforms [2,3,7].
The Internet of Things IoT concept has to do with the connection of physical objects with embedded electronics, software, sensors and connectivity to enable data interchange between these devices and an operator over a common platform or the web [6—10]. Presently, as in the past, automation companies such as Emerson, Siemens, Schneider Electric, and Allen Bradley develop various forms of SCADA hardware and software which they sell as turnkey solutions to end users.
In addition to the huge initial capital costs of buying these SCADA systems, which are in thousands of dollars, the end user is made to pay for annual maintenance and support fees to use the SCADA system solutions. For very large companies, like most companies in the Oil and Gas sectors, the costs of owning these commercial SCADA systems might be justifiable or affordable. With the commercial systems, there is also the problem of interoperability with the existing infrastructures, for example power electronic converters in a power system .
Seamless communication among devices in modern power systems is the key to successful SCADA implementation [13,14]. Our proposed SCADA system uses reliable and commonly available components to achieve the four basic functions of a SCADA system which the available commercial SCADA systems also perform: Data acquisition, networked data communication, data presentation, and remote monitoring and supervisory control [1,9].
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we present the related works, problem statements, and the proposed SCADA system as a solution to the identified problems. In Section 4, we present the components of the proposed SCADA system and the detailed description of each of the components. Section 5 presents the implementation methodology, Section 6 presents the prototype design, Section 7 presents the experimental setup of the proposed SCADA system, and Section 8 presents the testing carried out and the results.
In Section 9, the key features of the designed SCADA system are discussed, including the system cost and power consumption analysis. The paper is concluded in Section 10, and future work presented in Section Literature Review The research communities all over the world have tried to solve the problems associated with commercial SCADA systems high costs and compatibility issues by developing various open source SCADA solutions, each with varying costs and functionalities.
Rajkumar et al. In this solution, Radio Frequency RF Receivers connected to a controller circuitry collect plant data, and the data are made available to the controller which, in turn parses the data to a driver circuitry for set point verification before the data get transmitted via the internet to a web-based SCADA server for visualization. The proposed solution here is complex as it involves the use of a mathematical model for data verification in the controller and driver circuitries before transmission to the web-based SCADA server.
Elsewhere, Merchan et al. Here, communication between the control devices is via Ethernet. This solution uses a lot of components which means more power consumption and less reliability of the resultant SCADA system. The major issues here are that the OpenSCADA software is not entirely free as it requires user subscriptions, and the proposed solution involves a large amount of logical programming for accurate data acquisition and visualization in the OpenSCADA platform. Electronics , 8, 4 of Similar to , Avhad et al.
In another development, Mononen et al. The cloud environment is composed of virtual machines running user-defined algorithms in the cloud for accurate data processing and handling. The functionalities of their developed system were evaluated using a traffic management process.
The major problem with these systems is that they are complex systems which will be difficult for an ordinary end-user to use. Furthermore, the solution in  is prone to errors as it requires a great deal of user-defined algorithms in the cloud. In this paper, we present the detailed design of a SCADA system using very few low-cost, low-power, and completely open source components. The authors in [22—24] have used Thinger. IO to implement their respective remote monitoring and automation systems.
In their systems, the acquired sensor data are sent to Thinger. IO cloud platform where HMI dashboards are created for data visualization. In , the visualized data are used for smart home energy decisions, while the acquired data in  are used for RESTful motion detection where the operator is notified of process changes via the Thinger.
IO platform. The implemented system in  is a smart emergency response system using the powerful IoT properties of the Thinger. Unlike our work where a locally installed Thinger. IO IoT server is used, these authors have used the web-based Thinger. IO platform requiring the public internet for access which means that the resulting monitoring solutions are vulnerable to internet attacks. Some of these techniques include a security technique focused on the communication channel or network as discussed in [27—29], a technique focused on protecting the hardware components as in , and a data-driven technique focused on protecting the cloud server as discussed in [6,25,31,32], or a combination of two or more of these techniques [27,33].
The SCADA system proposed in this work considers a combination of some of these security techniques, including the private network management and the data-driven private cloud server management techniques. Here, because the main cloud server is locally hosted on Memorial University MUN network, the operator has full control of the security of the system and can take several measures to protect the data in the cloud, such as ensuring access control, whitelists, authentication, authorization, firewalls, regular risk assessment, continuous monitoring and log analysis, updating and patching regularly, etc.
This is why we propose a locally installed Thinger. IO IoT server in this work, and to the best of our knowledge from reviewed literatures, and related works, we have not found a SCADA system solution where a locally installed Thinger. IO IoT server has been used. Also, in our previous open source SCADA system solution, more components were used which meant more difficulty in implementation and usage, more power consumption, less reliability, and more cost.
Furthermore, unlike our previous SCADA system solution where a single configuration was considered, two configurations are tested and presented in this current work. The first configuration is one in which data on the Thinger. IO IoT platform are accessible over the internet as long as the user is within the Memorial University network and has the authorizations to connect to the network. In this case, the Raspberry Pi micro-controller hosting the Thinger. The second configuration is such that only the users connected to the locally created Wi-Fi Network this connection is either wireless or via network cables to the LAN ports of the Wi-Fi Router can connect to the Thinger.
IO IoT platform for data visualization, remote monitoring and supervisory control. This second configuration creates a form of industrial network which is only accessible to authorized users on the network. In either configurations, the proposed SCADA system solution here will help to tackle the mentioned setbacks in the systems presented in literatures, high cost and compatibility issues in the available commercial SCADA systems, and the minor setbacks in our previous SCADA system solution by using fewer components which are known to consume less power, and are less expensive, while ensuring the same robust SCADA functionalities as in both our previous work and the available commercial SCADA system solutions.
The rest of this paper is dedicated to the system and components descriptions, implementation methodology, prototype design, experimental setup and testing of the proposed low-cost, open source IoT-based SCADA system solution. In connecting the hardware components together, two configurations are considered.
In the first configuration, the Raspberry Pi is connected to MUN Network via an Ethernet cable so that users on the network with the right authorizations can visualize the acquired data on the Thinger. IO IoT server platform. Also, in this configuration, by opening the Thinger. IO port on MUN network, users can access the stored data over the internet using their private office or home network.
Although the first configuration is more flexible, the second configuration is more secure, as this configuration ensures a kind of industrial network is created, with external internet users, even on MUN network, shut out. Figure 1. Figure 2. IO local IoT server with graphical user interface dashboards created for remote sensor data monitoring and supervisory control.
The operating signal voltage VCC of the current sensor is 5 V single supply, and that of voltage sensor is between 3. Therefore, in order to ensure that the sensor matches the 3. This will ensure the accuracy of the measured sensor value. The properties of these sensors and their usage in this work are described below:. In its operation, the applied current flowing through the copper conduction path generates a magnetic field which the Hall IC converts into a proportional output voltage .
The output voltage is proportional to the AC or DC currents being measured . This module is able to measure current values from 0 A to 30 A. Also, with this module, 0 A corresponds to 2. The step-down resistors arrangement showing the connection of the sensor to the ESP32 Thing is shown in Figure 3, and the voltage divider equation is shown in Equation 1.
MH Electronic Voltage Sensor Modules This is a low-cost analog voltage sensor capable of detecting supply voltages in the range of 0. The sensor uses the concept of voltage divider to measure voltage. This voltage divider is a series connection of a 30 K resistor and a 7.
Its operating voltage range is 3. In our setup, two voltage sensors are used; one of the voltage sensors is connected in parallel to the PV system to measure the voltage across it while the second one is connected in parallel across the lead acid battery system to measure the storage battery voltage.
The board can be powered with either a 5 V USB power supply or with a single-cell lithium-polymer LiPo battery, and its operating signal voltage range is 2. Figure 4 shows a picture of the SparkFun ESP32 board while Figure 5 shows a summary of the hardware specifications of the board .
First, an Arduino sketch to measure the voltage and DC current from the PV system, and calculate the PV power output from the voltage and current values, as well as to separately measure the storage battery voltage via the sensors is written in the Arduino IDE and uploaded to the board.
Electronics , 8, 9 of Figure 5. Hardware and peripherals specification summary of the ESP32 Thing. It is a low-cost chip and it has the following properties which make it robust and suitable for the proposed SCADA system design [38,39]:. In this work, the Thinger. IO IoT Server is installed and configured on the Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi is connected to the other components in either of the two configurations described earlier.
It is a high speed router with 54 Mbps data transfer rate, Some of the important features of the protocol which make it possible to connect and manage IoT devices are automatic discovery of API, and bandwidth savings . IO is wholly supported by GitHub the popular open source development platform .
The IoT platform has a Cloud Console with a beautifully designed front-end where a user can manage the connected devices and visualize the device information in the cloud . To start an IoT project in Thinger. IO, the first step is to create devices by adding the device parameters which will grant access to connect the devices to the Thinger.
IO account. Any device on the platform must be registered to have access to the cloud, and each device is identified by its unique identifier and credentials, such that an infinite number of devices can be added to the cloud platform without one device interfering with the other Figure 7. Once a user creates an account on the Thinger.
On the Cloud Console is a Statistics section where a user can see some basic information about the account such as the number of connected devices, endpoints, data buckets, statistics about device consumption in terms of sent and received data, as well as a Google Map of the approximate current locations of the connected devices Figure In the Cloud Console, an operator can add or remove devices, create real-time dashboards, access the device API, and perform other device and data management operations [22—24,40].
Also, the left side of the Statistics screen has a main menu with all the platform features needed to build IoT projects Figure 6 . One unique feature of the Thinger. IO IoT platform is that it allows an operator to discover the resources defined in the connected devices. A resource, in this case, can be a sensor reading like current, voltage, temperature, humidity, pressure, or any actionable element like a light, a relay, a motor, etc.
On the Thinger. Electronics , 8, 11 of IO has a Local Server option where a user can purchase one-off the hardware or hardware installation ISO image and install it on a standalone or networked machine for proper management. It also has a web-based server option which can be accessed using its URL just like every other web-application . For example, the authors in [22—24] used the web-based server option.
Both the web-based and local server options have IoT capability as the data stored in them can be accessed remotely with an internet enabled computer or with an internet enabled phone via Thinger. IO mobile app or phone browser. However, the locally-installed server option is more secure as the user has a better control of the server and stored data for security purposes . In this paper, the local server option is used. The low-cost Thinger. IO IoT platform allows a user to create all kinds of real-time visualization dashboards and charts for remote monitoring, as well as supports monitoring and control via emails, HTTP requests, etc.
Any of these Apps can be connected to a registered device in the cloud by scanning the QR barcode of the device. For example, the Thinger. This means that in addition to the cloud console monitoring and control features provided by the platform, an operator can also check the status of the connected devices, visualize and update output resources, edit and post input resources, as well as run resources anywhere in the world by using the Mobile Apps .
This means that an operator can either remotely visualize monitor the received data at the Cloud Console by clicking on the Device API, or by checking the Dashboards and Data Buckets. An operator can also initiate Supervisory Control actions by setting up and using the endpoint features of the platform. Figures 6 and 7 show a visual of the Thinger. Figure 6. IO Cloud Console. Electronics , 8, 12 of Two modules are connected in parallel such that it contains six sets of W, and 14 A each.
It has Maximum Power Point Tracking MPPT system to ensure that maximum power is captured from the solar panels under all operating conditions, and lead acid electrical battery system is connected to the MPPT to store the energy from the solar panels for use during prolonged extreme weather conditions.
In this project, the SCADA system is set up to acquire the PV voltage, PV current, the measured PV power from the voltage and current values, as well as the storage battery voltage, for remote monitoring and supervisory control. Here, only one set of the modules about W, and 14 A output is used for testing purposes. IO IoT server platform for remote monitoring and supervisory control. The pseudocode for the implementation methodology is shown in Algorithm 1 below, and the appearance of the received data on the Thinger.
Electronics , 8, 13 of Algorithm 1: Data Logging Algorithm: Initialization; 1. Connect to Thinger. Identify the specified Thinger. Post Sensor Data to the specified Thinger. IO Device; while Thinger. Display Sensor Data on Thinger. IO Cloud Console, and; 8. IO Server then 9. Go to Step 1; end end. Prototype Design Using the described hardware components and the operational principles of each of the components, the proposed SCADA system is designed and implemented as shown in Figure 9.
As shown in the figure, the analog sensors, the pull-down resistors arrangement, and the ESP32 Thing micro-controller are connected together on a Breadboard. The 3. IO local server IoT platform are both placed in the building, and integrated into the system in two different configurations.
Electronics , 8, 14 of Figure 9. The inputs of the current and voltage sensors are connected to the PV and battery systems to acquire the PV data using electrical cables, and the sensor outputs are connected via cables to the ESP32 Thing to capture and parse the acquired data to the Thinger.
IO IoT Server. Figure Electronics , 8, 15 of Io local server IoT platform for remote monitoring and supervisory control. A flow chart of the data acquisition, processing, visualization and supervisory control process from the sensors to the Thinger. IO server platform is shown in Figure Results The Thinger. IO program Pseudocode shown in Algorithm 1 , the acquired sensor data were posted to the Thinger. Having received the PV data at the cloud console, dashboards and data buckets were created and configured such that the received data were automatically logged to both the dashboards and data buckets for remote monitoring and supervisory control via computers and mobile devices.
IO platform using desktops, laptops and mobile browsers pointed to Thinger. IO local server IP Address. IO port is left open on MUN network. In the second configuration B , only the authorized users connected to the Local Wi-Fi Network can view the data on the Thinger. Also, in both configurations, authorized personnel can view the stored data on the platform using the Thinger.
However, only the users connected to either of the networks can view the real-time data on the Mobile App. While the system was being tested, a digital multimeter was connected to each of the points of interest to measure the desired values. In both configurations, the acquired sensor data matched the values measured locally using the digital multimeter, with minor measurement errors. The system was tested for about a month, disconnected and reconnected on different days during this testing period to test its robustness as shown on the Data History window in Figure Also, during testing, a load an electric bulb was connected to the battery to discharge it so that a significant amount of current can flow from the PV system across the MPPT to recharge the battery.
Various dashboards were created on the Thinger. IO Server IoT platform to log the real-time PV data for remote monitoring and supervisory control, and from the dashboards, variations in the acquired sensor values were seen depending on the prevalent weather conditions affecting the PV system at the time of testing.
As shown in Figures 13 and 14, the vibrations in the real-time values were due to the frequent changes in the weather conditions in St. Furthermore, by clicking on the GPS at the bottom of Figures 13 and 14 dashboards on the cloud platform, the exact location of the connected devices can be seen.
Like, we said, the app is geared for expert hackers. The app is one of the oldest hacking apps on the list and has a credible reputation for reliable service. AndroRAT app lets you remotely hack a Samsung phone and obtain information from the target phone. As we mentioned before, some people hack their phones to test security systems. With my mSpy Samsung Spy, you can hack Android devices of any brand and model type. Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a new window or tab Share on Twitter - opens in a new window or tab Share on Pinterest - opens in a new window or tab Add to Watchlist.
Apple is no better then Samsung. Learn more - opens in a new window or tab International postage and import charges paid to Pitney Bowes Inc. These plans can be opted by selecting a billing option: Monthly, quarterly, and yearly. For additional information, see the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab.
TiSPY service software is designed for monitoring your children on a smartphone or other device you own it or have proper consent to monitor. Related cellphone spy for Galaxy A50 items Feedback on our suggestions - Related sponsored items. Cellphone spy for Galaxy A50 mSpy doesn't provide the ambient recording. Everything you do on any smartphone is NOT secure.
People willfully put spying devices into their lives. The app offers several tools geared specifically to test security systems. IT administrators can scan the network remotely and simulate an advanced hacking environment. While we are guarded against such lauded claims, we were certainly impressed by the list of functions you can find on the app. If you need an app that does just about everything, consider cSploit. Every Samsung phone can be easily spied on even if it is the latest Samsung Galaxy S We have prepared a hands-on review of different methods to spy on a.
Are you more interested in open-source technology? Kali Linux NetHunter is amazing because it supports the following: Wireless Apps such as these currently flock the Play Store with the hope to help users. The app also offers real time tracking, alerting the person when their significant other gets a phone call or a text message. This is the free version of the app, which means it comes with ads on board. The best SMS tracker app Pro version also has a bigger storage of content that can be tracked call logs, messages, etc.
The app is compatible with devices running Android 4. This app is meant for personal tracking of details. It will give you detailed location accurate up to meters. And that little secret technology can back door any app you use sending any private or personal information to any unofficial country or private manufacturer any where in the world. Most of these thefts happen right in front of our faces as we stare blindly into and our phones or computers.
Sad part is we are so busy being distracted by other things going on we hardly even notice. Two sentences one after the other. No need for super secret tech. Available for many Samsung phones? The most modern device supported is the Galaxy S5 from Will it work with the S10?
How about the S8? No, then S6? Still no? We are all tracked, monitored, and spyed on, through all our computer and mobile divices every day. There is no longer any data protection, and we have all just allowed it to happen, without challange, i dread for the future. Google employees the majority of have had to sign national security act paperwork years ago when the cia got themselves completely embedded with Google citing both Patriots acts and subsequently homeland security acts, nsa as well which have all basically suspended the constitution and the majority of the public have no idea.
Governments around the world have been using the tried and true methods of starting problems and panic from behind the scenes a-la the Riechstad fire in and the attacks as well as disease and too many more to count. Then as it was designed to sweep into the situation with the means to protect the population of said nation but certain rights will have to be given up temporarily, lmao so as to have the necessary freedom to protect the population.
Personally I need no protection from powers outside the U. Sadly since President Eisenhowers warning it has become a government of people by the international corporations, of the international corporations and by the international corporations.
And now the major powers of the world, U. And without this being changed somehow humans are doomed to self destruction. And this is the truth. Locating everyone who has ever said bad things about the current administration. Handy for damage control. Did someone say the quality of their phones are bad?
The company itself might not be so good guys. Remember when their phones were exploding and burned up and they forced the phones to brick to solve the problem. Not exactly a glowing review? Ran my own scan with an apk from a mirror just to confirm. Possible the bundled version is different. Why does a storage cleaner require fine location, bluetooth, phone calls, camera, or to be able to change the wifi state?
Screenshot by Ed Rhee If you're paranoid about getting your Samsung Galaxy device stolen or losing it, Samsung has a great free service that should help you feel more at ease. Here's how: Step 1: Check to see if you have one of the supported Samsung Galaxy devices. Review score 5 out of 5 stars. Review score 4 out of 5 stars. Review score 3 out of 5 stars. Review score 2 out of 5 stars. Review score 1 out of 5 stars.
Store Stock Checker. Despite the overall phone size being smaller, the screen is larger. In this phone the screen goes right to the edge making it just as difficult to stretch my fingers across. This is the first phone I have bought that hasn't been by Google, and as such, I am unhappy with the bloatware that comes with it.
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